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gUFO: A Lightweight Implementation of the Unified Foundational Ontology (UFO)

Metadata

IRI
http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#
Creator(s)
Almeida, João Paulo A.
Falbo, Ricardo A.
Guizzardi, Giancarlo
Sales, Tiago P.
Rights
This work is distributed under Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0
Ontology Source
RDF (Turtle)

Description

The objective of gUFO is to provide a lightweight implementation of the Unified Foundational Ontology (UFO) [1-5] suitable for Semantic Web OWL 2 DL applications.

Intended users are those implementing UFO-based lightweight ontologies that reuse gUFO by specializing and instantiating its elements.

There are three implications of the use of the term lightweight. First of all, we have employed little expressive means in an effort to retain computational properties for the resulting OWL ontology. Second, we have selected a subset of UFO-A [1, 2] and UFO-B [3] to include here. In particular, there is minimalistic support for UFO-B (only that which is necessary to establish the participation of objects in events and to capture historical dependence between events). Third, a lightweight ontology, differently from a reference ontology, is designed with the purpose of providing an implementation artifact to structure a knowledge base (or knowledge graph). This has driven a number of pragmatic implementation choices which are discussed in comments annotated to the various elements of this implementation.

The 'g' in gUFO stands for gentle. At the same time, "gufo" is the Italian word for "owl".

For background information on the reference ontology on which this implementation is based, see:

  1. G. Guizzardi, G. Wagner, J. P. A. Almeida, R. S. S. Guizzardi, “Towards ontological foundations for conceptual modeling: The unified foundational ontology (UFO) story,” Applied Ontology (Online), vol. 10, p. 259–271, 2015. http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/ao-150157
  2. G. Guizzardi, Ontological Foundations for Structural Conceptual Models, PhD Thesis, University of Twente, The Netherlands, 2005. https://research.utwente.nl/en/publications/ontological-foundations-for-structural-conceptual-models
  3. G. Guizzardi, G. Wagner, R. A. Falbo, R. S. S. Guizzardi, and J. P. A. Almeida, “Towards Ontological Foundations for the Conceptual Modeling of Events,” in Proc. 32th International Conference, ER 2013, 2013, p. 327–341. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-41924-9_27
  4. G. Guizzardi, C. M. Fonseca, A. B. Benevides, J. P. A. Almeida, D. Porello, T. P. Sales, “Endurant Types in Ontology-Driven Conceptual Modeling: Towards OntoUML 2.0,” in Conceptual Modeling – 37th International Conference, ER 2018, 2018, p. 136–150. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-00847-5_12
  5. C. M. Fonseca, D. Porello, G. Guizzardi, J. P. A. Almeida, and N. Guarino, “Relations in ontology-driven conceptual modeling,” in 38th International Conference on Conceptual Modeling (ER 2019), LNCS, 2019. v. 11788, 2019, p. 1–15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-33223-5_4

Cite this work as:

J. P. A. Almeida, G. Guizzardi, T. P. Sales, R. A. Falbo, "gUFO: A Lightweight Implementation of the Unified Foundational Ontology (UFO)", http://purl.org/nemo/doc/gufo

For the source repository, see: https://github.com/nemo-ufes/gufo

Usage Guide

Table of Contents

See also reference table of contents.

1. Usage Scenarios

gUFO is intended for reuse in the definition of UFO-based lightweight ontologies. The term "user" will thus be reserved to identify the designers of these ontologies.

Reuse of gUFO consists in instantiating and/or specializing the various classes, object properties and data properties defined in the ontology, inheriting from it the domain-independent distinctions of UFO. This section provides an introduction to gUFO as a primer to prospective users. Turtle is used as a syntax for RDF serialization for illustrative purposes.

A key feature of UFO (and hence, gUFO) is that it includes two taxonomies: one with classes whose instances are individuals (classes in this taxonomy include gufo:Object, gufo:Event) and another with classes whose instances are types (classes in this taxonomy include gufo:Kind, gufo:Phase, gufo:Category).

An overview of these taxonomies in gUFO is shown below.

Considering these two taxonomies, the following usage scenarios are envisioned and discussed in this document where appropriate:

  1. A UFO-based ontology instantiates gUFO classes in the taxonomy of individuals
    For example, :Earth rdf:type gufo:Object and :WorldCup1970Final rdf:type gufo:Event.
  2. A UFO-based ontology specializes gUFO classes in the taxonomy of individuals
    For example, :Planet rdfs:subClassOf gufo:Object and :SoccerMatch rdfs:subClassOf gufo:Event.
  3. A UFO-based ontology instantiates gUFO classes in the taxonomy of types
    For example, :Planet rdf:type gufo:Kind, :Child rdf:type gufo:Phase.
  4. A UFO-based ontology specializes gUFO classes in the taxonomy of types
    For example, :PersonPhase rdfs:subClassOf gufo:Phase.

Users may combine the various scenarios discussed. For example, users will often employ scenarios 2 and 3 in combination as shown in the following fragment, which defines a "Person" class that specializes gufo:Object and instantiates gufo:Kind:

@prefix : <http://purl.org/nemo/example#> .
@prefix gufo: <http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#> .

:Person rdf:type owl:Class ;
        rdfs:subClassOf gufo:Object ;
        rdf:type gufo:Kind .

2. Taxonomy of Individuals

The taxonomy of individuals of gUFO has the following overall structure:

2.1. Concrete Individuals

A gufo:ConcreteIndividual, differently from a gufo:AbstractIndividual, is one that exists in space-time. Concrete individuals comprise objects (the Mount Everest, John, his car, the Brazilian 1988 Constitution), reified aspects of concrete individuals (John's height, his service agreement with Amazon, Inc.), events (the 1986 Mexico City Earthquake, the 2009 United Nations Climate Change Conference) and situations (the situation in which John weighs 80 kilograms, the situation in which Mary is a professor).

Together, objects and aspects form what we call endurants, as they are those concrete individuals that endure in time and may change qualitatively while keeping their identity. A gufo:Aspect is a characteristic or trait of a concrete individual that is itself conceived as an individual. Treating aspects as endurants (i.e., reifying aspects) allows us to consider the properties of aspects themselves, and track their change in time.

gUFO includes a number of data and object properties that can be used with concrete individuals. For example, temporal aspects of concrete individuals can be captured with the data properties gufo:hasBeginPointInXSDDate, gufo:hasBeginPointInXSDDateTimeStamp, gufo:hasEndPointInXSDDate and gufo:hasEndPointInXSDDateTimeStamp. In the case of objects (and aspects), these properties determine the time point when the object (or aspect) comes into existence or ceases to exist. In the case of events, these properties determine the time point when the event starts to take place or when it ends. In the case of situations, the properties determine the time point when the situation begins and ceases to hold. (Temporal instants may also be reified using time:Instant in which case the gufo:hasBeginPoint and gufo:hasEndPoint object properties are applicable, see OWL-Time for details concerning time:Instant, including support for Allen relations, temporal reference systems, temporal precision.)

For example, the 1985 Mexico City Earthquake started at 13:17:50 (UTC) on the 19th Sept. 1985 (scenario 1):

:1985MexicoCityEarthquake rdf:type  gufo:Event ;
                   gufo:hasBeginPointInXSDDateTimeStamp "1985-09-19T13:17:50Z"^^xsd:dateTimeStamp .

By declaring Earthquake to be a sub-class of gufo:Event, the applicable object and data properties can be used with instances of earthquake (scenario 2):

:Earthquake rdf:type owl:Class ;
            rdfs:subClassOf gufo:Event .

:1985MexicoCityEarthquake rdf:type  :Earthquake ;
                        gufo:hasBeginPointInXSDDateTimeStamp "1985-09-19T13:17:50Z"^^xsd:dateTimeStamp .

gUFO also includes a number of part-whole relations for concrete individuals. See gufo:isProperPartOf and its sub-properties.

2.2. Objects and their parts

Objects are further classified according to the way they are structured into parts, leading to the following subclasses: gufo:FunctionalComplex, gufo:Collection and gufo:Quantity.

A gufo:FunctionalComplex is a complex gufo:Object whose parts (components) play different roles in its composition, including most ordinary objects. For example, a person could be considered a gufo:FunctionalComplex with the various organs (heart, brain, lungs, etc.) playing different roles.

A gufo:Collection is a complex gufo:Object whose parts (the members of the collection) have a uniform structure (i.e., members are conceived as playing the same role in the collection). Examples include a deck of cards, a pile of bricks, a forest (conceived as a collection of trees), a group of people. Collections may have a variable or fixed membership (see subclasses gufo:VariableCollection and gufo:FixedCollection).

A gufo:Quantity is complex gufo:Object that is a maximally-connected portion of stuff. A gufo:Quantity has a fixed constitution, and thus, removing or adding a sub-quantity would result in a different quantity. Examples include the portion of wine in a wine tank, a lump of clay, the gold that constitutes a wedding ring.

The relations between a part and its whole are captured with the gufo:isObjectPropertPartOf property and its sub-properties, depending on the types of parts and complex objects involved:

For example, John's brain is a component of John's:

:John rdf:type :Person .

:Brain rdf:type owl:Class ; 
        rdfs:subClassOf gufo:Object .

:JohnsBrain rdf:type :Brain ;
        gufo:isComponentOf :John .

2.3. Intrinsic Aspects

The most straightforward way to describe intrinsic aspects of entities in a RDF/OWL setting is to employ data properties. For example, the following fragment defines a data property to represent the mass of a physical object in kilograms and declare a value for the Moon's mass:

:hasMassInKilograms rdf:type owl:DatatypeProperty ;
                        rdfs:domain :PhysicalObject;
                        rdfs:range xsd:double .

:Moon rdf:type :PhysicalObject ;
        :hasMassInKilograms "7.34767309E22"^^xsd:double .

While this is an adequate solution in many settings, some additional flexibility may be required, which can be obtained by treating an aspect as a concrete individual (instances of gufo:Aspect). This strategy is known as "reification".

Reified aspects in gUFO are further divided into intrinsic aspects (qualities and intrinsic modes) and extrinsic aspects (relators and extrinsic modes):

A gufo:IntrinsicAspect depends on a single concrete individual in which it inheres. Examples include intrinsic physical aspects, such as the Moon's mass, Lassie's fur color; the fragility of John Lennon's glasses; mental dispositions, such as Bob's math skills, his belief that the number one is odd.

Intrinsic aspects are divided into qualities, in case the aspect is measurable by a certain value space (for example, Bob's weight, the height of the Statue of Liberty), and intrinsic modes, which are not given a direct value (for example, Bob's belief that the Eiffel Tower is in Paris, his capabilities).

2.4. Qualities - Basic pattern

The turtle fragment below shows an example of definition of a quality type (mass) by specializing gufo:Quality:

:Mass rdf:type owl:Class ;
            rdfs:subClassOf gufo:Quality .

As an intrinsic aspect, a gufo:Quality gufo:inheresIn a gufo:ConcreteIndividual. For example, the Moon's mass inheres in the Moon. Further, a quality may be given a value with the gufo:hasQualityValue data property. For example, consider the Moon's mass:

:Moon rdf:type :PhysicalObject .

:MoonsMass rdf:type :Mass ;
                gufo:inheresIn :Moon
                gufo:hasQualityValue "7.34767309E22"^^xsd:double .

A user may add that a mass must inhere in exactly one physical object:

:Mass rdfs:subClassOf [ rdf:type owl:Restriction ;
                        owl:onProperty gufo:inheresIn ;
                        owl:qualifiedCardinality "1"^^xsd:nonNegativeInteger ;
                        owl:onClass :PhysicalObject
                       ] .

Further, a user may define specialized sub-properties of gufo:inheresIn in order to determine specific domain and range applicable to qualities of a certain type:

:massOf rdf:type owl:ObjectProperty ;
        rdfs:subPropertyOf gufo:inheresIn ;
        rdfs:domain :Mass ;
        rdfs:range :PhysicalObject .

A user may also define sub-properties of gufo:hasQualityValue, for example with different ways to quantify a quality. Treating a quality (such as the Moon's mass) as a reified entity, we can give it a value in different units (kilograms and in short tons):

:massInKilograms rdf:type owl:DatatypeProperty ;
                        rdfs:subPropertyOf gufo:hasQualityValue ;
                        rdfs:domain :Mass ;
                        rdfs:range xsd:double .

:massInShortTons rdf:type owl:DatatypeProperty ;
                        rdfs:subPropertyOf gufo:hasQualityValue ;
                        rdfs:domain :Mass ;
                        rdfs:range xsd:double .

:MoonsMass rdf:type :Mass ;
                :massOf :Moon ;
                :massInKilograms "7.34767309E22"^^xsd:double ;
                :massInShortTons "8.099423160000001E19"^^xsd:double .

(Other patterns for the representation of quality values are discussed below, including reification of quality values and situations employed to represent changes in qualities.)

2.5. Qualities - Advanced usage

In addition to the gufo:hasQualityValue data property, an object property called gufo:hasReifiedQualityValue is provided for those cases in which an instance of gufo:QualityValue is used instead of a literal to provide the value of a quality. Reifying a gufo:QualityValue may be useful in the case of enumerated values (for example, the various sizes of t-shirts), nominal qualities (for example, ethnicity or gender) or for quality values that are defined in terms of a multidimensional quality structure (such as color conceived in terms of red, green and blue components or hue, saturation and brightness).

In all these cases, a specialization of gufo:QualityValue is introduced. For example, consider the enumeration of shirt sizes:

:ShirtSize rdf:type owl:Class ;
        rdfs:subClassOf gufo:QualityValue ;
        owl:equivalentClass [ rdf:type owl:Class ;
                                owl:oneOf ( :S
                                            :M
                                            :L
                                            :XL
                                        )
                            ] .

:S rdf:type :ShirtSize .
:M rdf:type :ShirtSize .
:L rdf:type :ShirtSize .
:XL rdf:type :ShirtSize .

Consider color in a multidimensional RGB quality structure. Here, a corresponding sub-property of gufo:hasReifiedQualityValue ("hasColorValueInRGB") is also defined:

:ColorValueInRGB rdf:type owl:Class ;
                rdfs:subClassOf gufo:QualityValue .

:hasColorValueInRGB rdf:type owl:ObjectProperty ;
                    rdfs:subPropertyOf gufo:hasReifiedQualityValue ;
                    rdfs:domain :Color ;
                    rdfs:range :ColorValueInRGB .

In the case of multidimensional quality values, it is recommended that subproperties of gufo:hasValueComponent are created to indicate values for particular dimensions, possibly identifying the datatype to be used. For example "hasRedValueComponent", "hasGreenValueComponent" and "hasBlueValueComponent" could be used as data properties specializing gufo:hasValueComponent with the xsd:nonNegativeInteger datatype.

:hasRedValueComponent rdf:type owl:DatatypeProperty ;
                    rdfs:subPropertyOf gufo:hasValueComponent ;
                    rdfs:domain :ColorValueInRGB ;
                    rdfs:range xsd:nonNegativeInteger .

:hasGreenValueComponent rdf:type owl:DatatypeProperty ;
                        rdfs:subPropertyOf gufo:hasValueComponent ;
                        rdfs:domain :ColorValueInRGB ;
                        rdfs:range xsd:nonNegativeInteger .

:hasBlueValueComponent rdf:type owl:DatatypeProperty ;
                    rdfs:subPropertyOf gufo:hasValueComponent ;
                    rdfs:domain :ColorValueInRGB ;
                    rdfs:range xsd:nonNegativeInteger .

The following fragment determines the color of Yves Klein's "Blue Monochrome" painting made in 1961 (MoMA's object with number 618.1967) respecting the multidimensional scheme we have defined above:

:YvesKleinBlueMonochromePainting rdf:type :PhysicalObject .

:YvesKleinBlueMonochromePaintingColor rdf:type :Color ;
                    gufo:inheresIn :YvesKleinBlueMonochromePainting ;
                    :hasColorValueInRGB [ 
                        rdf:type :ColorValueInRGB ;
                        :hasRedValueComponent "0"^^xsd:nonNegativeInteger ;
                        :hasGreenValueComponent "47"^^xsd:nonNegativeInteger ;
                        :hasBlueValueComponent "167"^^xsd:nonNegativeInteger ] .

The example can be extended to capture the color in CMYK, HSB or other schemes.

2.6. Intrinsic Modes

Intrinsic modes, unlike qualities, are not given values. The following fragment shows an example of a sub-class of gufo:IntrinsicMode and the corresponding sub-property of gufo:inheresIn establishing that a headache inheres in a person:

:Headache rdf:type owl:Class ;
        rdfs:subClassOf gufo:IntrinsicMode .

:headacheOf rdf:type owl:ObjectProperty ;
            rdfs:subPropertyOf gufo:inheresIn ;
            rdfs:domain :Headache ;
            rdfs:range :Person .

Since a gufo:IntrinsicMode is a gufo:ConcreteIndividual, we may track its temporal properties, as well as ascribe qualities (or other aspects) to it. For example, we may quantify the intensity of a headache with a quality and a Verbal Rating Scale (1 corresponding to "Mild pain", 2 corresponding to "Moderate pain", 3 corresponding to "Severe"):

:johnsHeadache rdf:type :Headache ;
            :headacheOf :John;
            gufo:hasBeginPointInXSDDateTimeStamp "2019-11-19T14:14:50Z"^^xsd:dateTimeStamp .

:HeadacheIntensity rdf:type owl:Class ;
               rdfs:subClassOf gufo:Quality .

:johnsHeadacheIntensity rdf:type :HeadacheIntensity ;
            gufo:inheresIn :johnsHeadache  ;
            gufo:hasQualityValue "2"^^xsd:nonNegativeInteger .

Further, by using situations, we can also track changes in an aspect over time, for example, to capture the evolution of a symptom, such as a headache and its intensity. See situations below.

2.7. Extrinsic Aspects

A gufo:ExtrinsicAspect is one that depends on one or more concrete individuals. Extrinsic (or "relational") aspects are reified relationships (instances of gufo:Relator), e.g., John and Mary's marriage, Mary's employment contract at Nasa.

A relator gufo:mediates concrete individuals. The following fragment shows an example of a sub-class of gufo:Relator and the corresponding sub-property of gufo:mediates establishing that persons are mediated through marriage:

:Marriage rdf:type owl:Class ;
        rdfs:subClassOf gufo:Relator .

:marriageInvolves rdf:type owl:ObjectProperty ;
                rdfs:subPropertyOf gufo:mediates ;
                rdfs:domain :Marriage ;
                rdfs:range :Person .

The following fragment instantiates Marriage and establishes the related persons (John and Mary):

:John rdf:type :Person .
:Mary rdf:type :Person .

:JohnMarysMarriage rdf:type :Marriage ;
                :marriageInvolves :John ,
                                  :Mary .

A fuller application of the relator pattern can also make explicit the roles that are played in the scope of a relationship:

:Employment rdf:type owl:Class ;
            rdfs:subClassOf gufo:Relator .

:Employee rdf:type owl:Class ;
        rdfs:subClassOf :Person .

:Organization rdf:type owl:Class ;
        rdfs:subClassOf gufo:Object .

:Employer rdf:type owl:Class ;
        rdfs:subClassOf :Organization .

:involvesEmployee rdf:type owl:ObjectProperty ;
                rdfs:subPropertyOf gufo:mediates ;
                rdfs:domain :Employment ;
                rdfs:range :Employee .

:involvesEmployer rdf:type owl:ObjectProperty ;
                rdfs:subPropertyOf gufo:mediates ;
                rdfs:domain :Employment ;
                rdfs:range :Employer .

In the simpler cases, a user may alternatively choose to only declare that a marriage is a relator that involves persons. This pattern avoids the creation of subproperties of gufo:involves, but it prevents the explicit representation of roles:

:Marriage rdfs:subClassOf [ rdf:type owl:Restriction ;
                            owl:onProperty gufo:mediates ;
                            owl:someValuesFrom :Person
                          ] .

Since a relator is a concrete individual, we may also track its temporal properties (begin and end date of employment) and ascribe other aspects to it (salary in the scope of the employment).

Note that, since OWL does not have dynamic classification, a person will be classified as an employee regardless of whether they have a current or past employment. Temporal properties of the employment will reflect whether employment is past.

Extrinsic aspects can also be reified one-sided relationships, e.g., John's admiration for Obama (which depends on Obama but does not characterize him). They can also be used to reveal parts of relators (instances of gufo:ExtrinsicMode), e.g., John's rights towards Amazon, Inc. (in the scope of a service agreement) and Amazon's reciprocal duties, Amazon's rights towards John, John's reciprocal duties:

:AmazonInc rdf:type :Organization .

:ServiceAgreement rdf:type owl:Class ;
        rdfs:subClassOf gufo:Relator .

:JohnAmazonAgreement rdf:type :ServiceAgreement ;
                :mediates :AmazonInc ,
                            :John .

:JohnsRightToServiceProvisioning rdf:type gufo:ExtrinsicMode ;
                gufo:inheresIn :John ;
                gufo:externallyDependsOn :AmazonInc ;
                gufo:isAspectProperPartOf :JohnAmazonAgreement .

:AmazonsDutyToProvideService rdf:type gufo:ExtrinsicMode ;
                gufo:inheresIn :AmazonInc ;
                gufo:externallyDependsOn :John ;
                gufo:isAspectProperPartOf :JohnAmazonAgreement .

:AmazonsRightToPayment rdf:type gufo:ExtrinsicMode ;
                gufo:inheresIn :AmazonInc ;
                gufo:externallyDependsOn :John ;
                gufo:isAspectProperPartOf :JohnAmazonAgreement .

:JohnsDutyToPay rdf:type gufo:ExtrinsicMode ;
                gufo:inheresIn :John ;
                gufo:externallyDependsOn :AmazonInc ;
                gufo:isAspectProperPartOf :JohnAmazonAgreement .

2.8. Events

A gufo:Event is a gufo:ConcreteIndividual that 'occurs' or 'happens' in time. They may be instantaneous or long-running. Events are those "things that happen to or are performed by" endurants (Casati and Varzi, 2015).

Examples include actions and processes, such as a business meeting, a communicative act, a soccer match, a goal kick, the clicking of a mouse button; as well as natural occurrences such as an earthquake, the fall of the meteor that caused the extinction of the dinosaurs.

The following fragment shows examples of sub-classes of gufo:Event (NaturalDisaster, Earthquake, Tsunami, SoccerMatch), and an instance of SoccerMatch (WorldCup1970Final).

:NaturalDisaster rdf:type owl:Class ;
                rdfs:subClassOf gufo:Event .

:Earthquake rdf:type owl:Class ;
            rdfs:subClassOf :NaturalDisaster ;
            owl:disjointWith :Tsunami .

:Tsunami rdf:type owl:Class ;
        rdfs:subClassOf :NaturalDisaster .

:SoccerMatch rdf:type owl:Class ;
            rdfs:subClassOf gufo:Event .

:WorldCup1970Final rdf:type :SoccerMatch .

The implementation includes an object property to declare historical dependence between events. For example, the WorldCup1970Final depends historically on the two semifinals:

:WorldCup1970Final  gufo:historicallyDependsOn :BrazilUruguayWorldCup1970SemiFinal .
:WorldCup1970Final  gufo:historicallyDependsOn :ItalyWestGermanyWorldCup1970SemiFinal .

The relations between objects and events may be captured with gufo:participatedIn, gufo:wasCreatedIn, gufo:wasTerminatedIn. Sub-properties of these object properties may be created to establish a particular domain and range. The following fragment establishes the participation of players in soccer matches, and defines that Pelé participated in the 1970 World Cup Final:

:SoccerMatchPlayer rdf:type owl:Class ;
                rdfs:subClassOf :Person .

:participatedInMatch rdf:type owl:ObjectProperty ;
                    rdfs:subPropertyOf gufo:participatedIn ;
                    rdfs:domain :SoccerMatchPlayer ;
                    rdfs:range :SoccerMatch .

:Pele rdf:type :Person ;
    :participatedInMatch :WorldCup1970Final .

Part-whole relations between events can be represented with the gufo:isEventProperPartOf object property:

:WorldCup1970 rdf:type gufo:Event .

:WorldCup1970Final rdf:type :SoccerMatch ;
                gufo:isEventProperPartOf :WorldCup1970 .

See gufo:Participation for the cases in which we want to treat each participation as a part of an event with multiple participations.

An event can also be related to the endurants that are created or terminated in it. For example, John and Mary's marriage was brought into existence in their wedding ceremony:

:JohnMarysMarriage rdf:type :Marriage ;
                :marriageInvolves :John ,
                                    :Mary ;
                gufo:wasCreatedIn :JohnMarysWedding.

:JohnMarysWedding rdf:type gufo:Event 
                    gufo:hasBeginPointInXSDDate "2001-12-12"^^xsd:date .
                    gufo:hasEndPointInXSDDate "2001-12-12"^^xsd:date .

The Space Shuttle Challenger (OV-099) was tragically destroyed during the launch of its tenth flight on January 28, 1986:

:Challenger rdf:type gufo:FunctionalComplex ;
        gufo:wasTerminatedIn :Challengers10thFlight .

:Challengers10thLaunch rdf:type gufo:Event 
    gufo:hasBeginPointInXSDDate "1986-01-28"^^xsd:date ;
    gufo:hasEndPointInXSDDate "1986-01-28"^^xsd:date .

The gufo:manifestedIn property can be used to identify specific aspects that manifest themselves in an event. For example, during the Challenger launch, a flaw in the seals of one of its rocket boosters led to catastrophic failure. Such a flaw can be considered an aspect of the seal, which was manifested in that event:

:ChallengerRightBoosterSeal rdf:type gufo:FunctionalComplex ;
        gufo:isComponentOf :Challenger .

:ChallengerRightBoosterSealFlaw rdf:type gufo:IntrinsicMode ;
        gufo:inheresIn :ChallengerRightBoosterSeal ;
        gufo:manifestedIn :Challengers10thLaunch .

2.9. Situations

Situations can be used to represent certain configurations of entities that can be comprehended as a whole. When that configuration is actual (present in reality), we say that a situation is a fact.

The various subclasses of gufo:Situation are used to represent "mutable" facts which obtain during some time and fail to obtain at other times. This includes the attribution of value to mutable qualities (such as a person's weight), the temporary instantiation of non-rigid types (e.g., as someone is a child at one point in time and a teenager later), the temporary participation in part-whole relations for replaceable parts (such as a car's tires), the temporary participation in constitution relations, and the temporary participation in mutable relations. Other subclasses may be created to capture domain-specific notions such as "HazardousSituation", "PersonHasFever".

We discuss here three of the various sub-classes of gufo:Situation (see gufo:Situation and its sub-classes for other types of situations):

A gufo:QualityValueAttributionSituation is used in a pattern when it is necessary to indicate the period of time in which the quality value attribution holds, and track changes in quality value. For example, consider tracking John's weight (technically, his mass) over the years. We declare various instances of gufo:QualityValueAttributionSituation and declare John to stand in these different situations with the gufo:standsInQualifiedAttribution object property:

:JohnWeighs80Kgin2015 rdf:type gufo:QualityValueAttributionSituation ;
                    gufo:concernsQualityType :Mass ;
                    gufo:concernsQualityValue "80.0"^^xsd:double ;
                    gufo:hasBeginPointInXSDDate "2015-01-01"^^xsd:date ;
                    gufo:hasEndPointInXSDDate "2015-12-31"^^xsd:date .

:JohnWeights70Kgin2018 rdf:type gufo:QualityValueAttributionSituation ;
                    gufo:concernsQualityType :Mass ;
                    gufo:concernsQualityValue "70.0"^^xsd:double ;
                    gufo:hasBeginPointInXSDDate "2018-01-01"^^xsd:date ;
                    gufo:hasEndPointInXSDDate "2018-12-31"^^xsd:date .

:John gufo:standsInQualifiedAttribution :JohnWeighs80Kgin2015 ;
      gufo:standsInQualifiedAttribution :JohnWeights70Kgin2018 .

The gufo:concernsQualityValue data property is used to indicate a quality value attributed to the gufo:Endurant standing in the situation, and the gufo:concernsQualityType is used to identify the quality type (sub-class of gufo:Quality) whose value is attributed in the gufo:QualityValueAttributionSituation. (Use of a class such as Mass as an object in an object property requires punning. See types below.)

Instances of gufo:TemporaryInstantiationSituation are used in a pattern when it is necessary to qualify the instantiation of non-rigid types with the period in time in which the instantiation holds. For example, consider subclasses of person representing life phases, such as Child, Adult, Senior:

:Child rdf:type owl:Class ;
   rdfs:subClassOf :Person .

:Adult rdf:type owl:Class ;
   rdfs:subClassOf :Person .

In this case, John was born in 1977 and is considered a child until 1995:

:JohnWasAChildFrom1977to1995 rdf:type gufo:TemporaryInstantiationSituation ;
                            gufo:concernsNonRigidType :Child ;
                            gufo:hasBeginPointInXSDDate "1977-10-01"^^xsd:date ;
                            gufo:hasEndPointInXSDDate "1995-09-31"^^xsd:date .

:JohnIsAdultFrom1995 rdf:type gufo:TemporaryInstantiationSituation ;
                            gufo:concernsNonRigidType :Adult ;
                            gufo:hasBeginPointInXSDDate "1995-10-01"^^xsd:date .

This is a reification of the instantiation (in a solution that is similar to the qualified relation pattern).

Instances of gufo:TemporaryParthoodSituation are used in a pattern when it is necessary to qualify parthood and its change in time. In the following fragment, a heart transplant is tracked (from situations in which John and Paul have their original parts, to a situation in which there was a heart transplant from John to Paul).

:JohnsHeart rdf:type :Heart ;
            gufo:standsInQualifiedParthood :JohnHasOriginalHeart .

:PaulsHeart rdf:type :Heart ;
            gufo:standsInQualifiedParthood :PaulHasJohnsHeart ,
                                        :PaulHasOriginalHeart .

:JohnHasOriginalHeart rdf:type gufo:TemporaryParthoodSituation ;
                    gufo:concernsTemporaryWhole :John ;
                    gufo:hasEndPointInXSDDate "2018-11-01"^^xsd:date .

:PaulHasOriginalHeart rdf:type gufo:TemporaryParthoodSituation ;
                    gufo:concernsTemporaryWhole :Paul ;
                    gufo:hasEndPointInXSDDate "2018-11-01"^^xsd:date .

:PaulHasJohnsHeart rdf:type gufo:TemporaryParthoodSituation ;
                    gufo:concernsTemporaryWhole :Paul ;
                    gufo:hasBeginPointInXSDDate "2018-11-01"^^xsd:date .

Instances of gufo:TemporaryConstitutionSituation are used in a pattern when it is necessary to qualify constitution and its change in time. In the following fragment, the quantity of marble that constitutes the Venus of Milo is tracked (from a situation in which it was constituted by its original quantity of marble, to a situation in which it is constituted by a smaller quantity of marble--after losing its arms, presumably in 1820).

:VenusOfMilo rdf:type :Statue .

:OriginalQuantityOfMarble rdf:type :AmountOfMarble ;
            gufo:standsInQualifiedConstitution :VenusHasArms .

:ReducedQuantityOfMarble rdf:type :AmountOfMarble ;
            gufo:standsInQualifiedConstitution :VenusHasNoArms .

:VenusHasArms rdf:type gufo:TemporaryConstitutionSituation ;
                    gufo:concernsConstitutedObject :VenusOfMilo ;
                    gufo:hasEndPointInXSDDate "1820-01-01"^^xsd:date .

:VenusHasNoArms rdf:type gufo:TemporaryConstitutionSituation ;
                    gufo:concernsConstitutedObject :VenusOfMilo ;
                    gufo:hasBeginPointInXSDDate "1820-01-02"^^xsd:date .

Use gufo:TemporaryRelationshipSituation when it is necessary to qualify relations that change in time and determine the interval (or point in time) when the relationship applies to the involved entities. In the following fragment, John is declared heavier than Paul in a particular date.

:heavierThan rdf:type owl:ObjectProperty ;
            rdfs:domain :PhysicalObject ;
            rdfs:range :PhysicalObject .

:John rdf:type :PhysicalObject .
:Paul rdf:type :PhysicalObject .

:John :standsAsHeavierObject :JohnIsHeavier .

:JohnIsHeavier rdf:type gufo:TemporaryRelationshipSituation ;
                    gufo:concernsRelationshipType :heavierThan ;
                    :concernsLighterObject :Paul ;
                    gufo:hasBeginPointInXSDDate "2019-05-30"^^xsd:date ;
                    gufo:hasEndPointInXSDDate "2019-05-30"^^xsd:date.

:standsAsHeavierObject rdfs:subPropertyOf gufo:standsInQualifiedRelationship .
:concernsLighterObject rdfs:subPropertyOf gufo:concernsRelatedEndurant .

For material relations (for example, Marriage, Enrollment, ServiceAgreement) prefer gufo:Relator to qualify relationships (see Extrinsic Aspects).

Situations can also be related to events through the gufo:broughtAbout and the gufo:contributedToTrigger properties. gufo:broughtAbout identifies a gufo:Situation that is brought about by a gufo:Event. For example, if the transplant had been represented explicitly, we could have established that it is the transplant that led to the new situations:

:Transplant rdf:type owl:Class ;
   rdfs:subClassOf gufo:Event .

:JohnToPaulHeartTransplant rdf:type :Transplant ;
    gufo:broughtAbout :PaulHasJohnsHeart .

We can also identify with gufo:contributedToTrigger those situations that contributed to triggering an event. For example, the fact that Host1234 was vulnerable contributed to its being involved in a security incident:

:SecurityIncident rdf:type owl:Class ;
   rdfs:subClassOf gufo:Event .

:WannaCryRansomwareAttackOnHost1234 rdf:type :SecurityIncident ;
                        gufo:hasBeginPointInXSDDate "2017-05-12"^^xsd:date ;
                        gufo:hasEndPointInXSDDate "2017-05-13"^^xsd:date ; .

:ComputerSystem  rdf:type owl:Class ;
   rdfs:subClassOf gufo:Object .

:Host1234 rdf:type :ComputerSystem ;
    gufo:participatedIn  :WannaCryRansomwareAttackOnHost1234 .

:VulnerableSystem rdf:type owl:Class ;
        rdfs:subClassOf gufo:Object .

:Host1234Vulnerable12May2017 rdf:type gufo:TemporaryInstantiationSituation ;
                            gufo:concernsNonRigidType :VulnerableSystem ;
                            gufo:hasBeginPointInXSDDate "2017-05-12"^^xsd:date ;
                            gufo:hasEndPointInXSDDate "2017-05-12"^^xsd:date ;
                            gufo:contributedToTrigger :WannaCryRansomwareAttackOnHost1234.

3. Taxonomy of Types

The taxonomy of types may be used to provide additional information about classes in UFO-based ontologies (usage scenario 3).

The taxonomy of types has the following overall structure:

The most abstract classes in this structure mostly reflect the taxonomy of individuals. For example, a gufo:AbstractIndividualType is a gufo:Type whose instances are abstract individuals (e.g., "NaturalNumber", "Set", "Proposition"), a gufo:EndurantType is a gufo:Type whose instances are objects and aspects (e.g., "Person", "Marriage", "Color"), a gufo:EventType is a gufo:Type whose instances are events (e.g., "Earthquake", "MusicalPerformance"), and so on.

3.1. Endurant types

The taxonomy of endurant types is more detailed, in order to qualify the ways in which an endurant type applies to their instances. For example, the following fragment declares Person to be a rigid sortal (a type that applies necessarily to its instances and provides them with identity criteria), Adult and Student to be anti-rigid sortals (types that apply contingently to their instances and carry a principle of identify provided by a kind). Since Adult is a phase, it applies to its instances in virtue of some intrinsic aspects. Since Student is a role, it applies to its instances in virtue of some extrinsic aspects.

:Person rdf:type gufo:Kind .

:Adult rdf:type gufo:Phase ;
    rdfs:subClassOf :Person .

:Student rdf:type gufo:Role ;
    rdfs:subClassOf :Person .

These declarations allow tools to detect representational mistakes, e.g., it is invalid for a gufo:Kind to be a sub-class of a gufo:Phase or gufo:Role; for an object to be an instance of more than one gufo:Kind, for a gufo:Kind to specializes any other sortal that specializes another gufo:Kind, etc.

See Guizzardi, 2005 and Guizzardi et al., 2018 for details concerning the taxonomy of endurant types.

This representation strategy employs OWL 2 punning, when a class is also treated as an instance of another class (in this case, :Person rdf:type gufo:Kind and, as defined in gUFO, gufo:Kind rdf:type owl:Class).

3.2. Relationship types

The gufo:RelationshipType class and its subclasses are introduced to qualify the ways in which an object property relates entities in UFO-based ontologies. For example, object properties such as "marriedWith" and "enrolledIn" can be declared to be instances of gufo:MaterialRelationshipType, which means we can identify the type of extrinsic aspect from which the material relationship type is derived (see gufo:isDerivedFrom). For instance, "marriedWith" can be derived from the "Marriage" relator type:

:marriedWith rdf:type owl:ObjectProperty ,
                gufo:MaterialRelationshipType;
         rdfs:domain :Person ;
         rdfs:range :Person ;
         gufo:isDerivedFrom :Marriage .

See gufo:RelationshipType for other sub-classes, including gufo:ComparativeRelationshipType, which can be reduced to intrinsic aspects of related entities.

3.3. High-order types

In usage scenario 4, a UFO-based ontology specializes gUFO classes in the taxonomy of types, for example, in order to represent roles that persons play: :PersonRole rdfs:subClassOf gufo:Role.

In these cases, a user may want to establish explicitly the relation between "PersonRole" (the second-order type) and "Person" (the first-order type). For this purpose, the gufo:categorizes property is provided. It identifies a gufo:Type whose instances may be classified by instances of the categorizing higher-order type.

The categorized type is termed the "base type" in the "powertype pattern" see (Carvalho et al., 2017), the higher-order type is often called the "powertype".

:PersonRole gufo:categorizes :Person ;
    rdfs:subClassOf gufo:Role .

:Student rdf:type :PersonRole ;
        rdfs:subClassOf :Person .
:Professor rdf:type :PersonRole ;
        rdfs:subClassOf :Person .

OWL 2 punning is used to capture the two facets of "Student" and "Professor" in this example: (i) as instances of "PersonRole", and (ii) as subclasses of "Person".

In another example, "ShipType" gufo:categorizes "Ship" and is a subclass of "gufo:SubKind". Instances of "ShipType" such as "Supercarrier" and "CargoShip" should be declared subclasses of "Ship".

:ShipType gufo:categorizes :Ship ;
    rdfs:subClassOf gufo:SubKind .

:Supercarrier rdf:type :ShipType ;
        rdfs:subClassOf :Ship .
:CargoShip rdf:type :ShipType ;
        rdfs:subClassOf :Ship .

gufo:categorizes is the general (unspecific) form of categorization. The sub-property gufo:partitions provides a more specific form, in which instances of the categorized type are classified by exactly one instance of the higher-order type.

For example, "AnimalSpecies" gufo:partitions "Animal". Instances of "AnimalSpecies" such as "Lion", "Hiena" must be disjoint subclasses of "Animal". OWL 2 punning should be used to capture the two facets of "Lion" and "Hiena" in this example: (i) as instances of "AnimalSpecies", and (ii) as subclasses of "Animal".

:AnimalSpecies gufo:partitions :Animal .

:Hiena rdf:type :AnimalSpecies ;
        rdfs:subClassOf :Animal .
:Lion rdf:type :AnimalSpecies ;
        rdfs:subClassOf :Animal ;
        owl:disjointWith :Hiena .

:Cecil rdf:type :Lion .

Note that the partitioned type (in the example "Animal") may or may not be declared to be a disjoint union of the explicitly enumerated subclasses (such as "Lion", "Hiena"). This is because other instances of the higher-order type ("AnimalSpecies") may exist that are not explicitly enumerated in the ontology.

The partitioned type is termed the "base type" in the "powertype pattern" see (Carvalho et al., 2017), the higher-order type is often called the "powertype".

For further details and formalization of "partitioning", see (Carvalho et al., 2017) which combines UFO with MLT (a multi-level modeling theory).

Reference Table of Contents

  1. Classes
  2. Object Properties
  3. Functional Properties
  4. Data Properties
  5. Namespaces

Classes

Individualc

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#Individual
Description

An entity that (unlike a gufo:Type) cannot be instantiated.

Individuals may be either concrete (e.g., the Earth, Mick Jagger, Brazil, the 1985 Mexico City Earthquake) or abstract (e.g., the number two, the proposition that 'three is a prime number').

Also known as "particular" in the philosophical literature.

Sub-classes gufo:ConcreteIndividualc
gufo:AbstractIndividualc

ConcreteIndividualc

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#ConcreteIndividual
Description

A gufo:Individual that exists in space-time.

Concrete individuals comprise not only object-like entities (a car, a mountain, a person, a marriage, a belief), but also events (a business meeting, a soccer match) and situations (the situation in which a person weighs 80 kilograms, the situation in which a bank account is overdrawn).

Super-classes gufo:Individualc
Sub-classes gufo:Eventc
gufo:Situationc
gufo:Endurantc
In domain of gufo:hasEndPointop
gufo:hasEndPointInXSDDateTimeStampfp
gufo:hasReifiedQualityValueop
gufo:hasEndPointInXSDDatefp
gufo:hasBeginPointInXSDDatefp
gufo:constitutesop
gufo:hasQualityValuedp
gufo:historicallyDependsOnop
gufo:hasBeginPointInXSDDateTimeStampfp
gufo:hasBeginPointop
In range of gufo:inheresInop
gufo:historicallyDependsOnop
gufo:constitutesop

Endurantc

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#Endurant
Description

A gufo:ConcreteIndividual that endures in time and may change qualitatively while keeping its identity.

Examples include: ordinary objects of everyday experience, such as a person, a house, and a car; reified relationships, such as a marriage, a rental contract, and a person's love for another; and existentially-dependent aspects of objects, such as a car's weight, a person's language skills, and a house's color.

Also termed "continuant" in the philosophical literature.

Super-classes gufo:ConcreteIndividualc
Sub-classes gufo:Objectc
gufo:Aspectc
In domain of gufo:standsInQualifiedConstitutionop
gufo:standsInQualifiedRelationshipop
gufo:standsInQualifiedAttributionop
gufo:wasTerminatedInop
gufo:standsInQualifiedParthoodop
gufo:standsInQualifiedInstantiationop
gufo:wasCreatedInop
In range of gufo:concernsConstitutedEndurantop
gufo:concernsRelatedEndurantop
gufo:externallyDependsOnop
gufo:concernsTemporaryWholeop
gufo:mediatesop

Objectc

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#Object
Description

A gufo:Endurant that does not depend on another endurant for its existence (excluding its essential parts and aspects).

Examples of objects include ordinary physical entities, such as a dog, a house, a tomato, a car, Alan Turing, but also socially-defined entities such as The Rolling Stones, the European Union, the Brazilian 1988 Constitution.

Guizzardi (2005) also included the more abstract notion of "Substantial", which generalizes both objects and amounts of matter. That notion was left out from this implementation, together with the notion of amount of matter. Support for the representation of maximally-self-connected amounts of matter is given by gufo:Quantity.

Super-classes gufo:Endurantc
Sub-classes gufo:FunctionalComplexc
gufo:Quantityc
gufo:Collectionc
In domain of gufo:participatedInop
gufo:isObjectProperPartOfop
gufo:isCollectionMemberOfop
gufo:isComponentOfop
In range of gufo:isObjectProperPartOfop

FunctionalComplexc

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#FunctionalComplex
Description

http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#isComponentOf

Super-classes gufo:Objectc
In range of gufo:isComponentOfop

Quantityc

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#Quantity
Description

A complex gufo:Object that is a maximally-connected portion of stuff. A gufo:Quantity has a fixed constitution, and thus, removing or adding a sub-quantity would result in a different quantity.

Examples include the portion of wine in a wine tank, a lump of clay, the gold that constitutes a wedding ring.

Also termed "quantity of matter", "objectified portion of matter", "piece" in the philosophical literature.

Super-classes gufo:Objectc
In domain of gufo:isSubQuantityOfop
In range of gufo:isSubQuantityOfop

Collectionc

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#Collection
Description

A complex gufo:Object whose parts (the members of the collection) have a uniform structure (i.e., members are conceived as playing the same role in the collection). Collections may have a fixed or variable membership, which can be asserted using gufo:FixedCollection and gufo:VariableCollection respectively.

Examples include a deck of cards, a pile of bricks, a forest (conceived as a collection of trees), and a group of people.

Collections in many cases constitute a functional complex. For example, a pile of bricks may constitute a wall, a group of people may constitute a football team.

A gufo:Collection may be decomposed into "smaller" collections. For instance, a group of people may be decomposed into a group of English speakers and a group of Italian speakers. Sub collections may or may not share members among them.

Super-classes gufo:Objectc
Sub-classes gufo:FixedCollectionc
gufo:VariableCollectionc
In domain of gufo:isSubCollectionOfop
In range of gufo:isCollectionMemberOfop
gufo:isSubCollectionOfop

FixedCollectionc

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#FixedCollection
Description

A gufo:Collection for which no change in membership is possible.

Such a collection obeys an extensional principle of identity, i.e., two fixed collections are the same if, and only if, they have the same members.

Consider, for example, a group of people understood as a gufo:FixedCollection. In this case, any change in the membership of the group (e.g., the addition of one person) would in fact create a different group of people. In this case, the gufo:FixedCollection may be contrasted with the complexes they constitute. For instance, The Beatles (the band conceived as a gufo:FunctionalComplex) was in a certain circumstance constituted by the collection {John, Paul, George, Pete} and in another one constituted by the collection {John, Paul, George, Ringo}. The replacement of Pete Best by Ringo Star does not alter the identity of the band, but creates a different group of people.

Super-classes gufo:Collectionc

VariableCollectionc

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#VariableCollection
Description

http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#TemporaryParthoodSituation

Super-classes gufo:Collectionc

Aspectc

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#Aspect
Description

A gufo:Endurant that depends on at least one other concrete individual for its existence. A gufo:Aspect is a characteristic or trait of a concrete individual that is itself conceived as an individual.

Examples include: intrinsic physical aspects, such as the Moon's mass, Lassie's fur color; mental dispositions, such as Bob's math skills, his belief that the number one is odd; as well as relational aspects, such as John's love for Mary and the marriage between John and Mary.

The specific sort of existential dependence connecting aspects to their bearers is called inherence.

Corresponds to "Moment" in Guizzardi (2005).

Also termed "property instance", "particularized property", "individual accident", or "(variable) trope" in the philosophical literature.

Super-classes gufo:Endurantc
Sub-classes gufo:ExtrinsicAspectc
gufo:IntrinsicAspectc
In domain of gufo:manifestedInop
gufo:inheresInop
gufo:isAspectProperPartOfop
In range of gufo:isAspectProperPartOfop

IntrinsicAspectc

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#IntrinsicAspect
Description

A gufo:Aspect that depends on a single concrete individual in which it inheres.

Examples include intrinsic physical aspects, such as the Moon's mass, Lassie's fur color; the fragility of John Lennon's glasses; mental dispositions, such as Bob's math skills, his belief that the number one is odd.

A gufo:IntrinsicAspect is classified as a gufo:Quality (e.g., an apple's weight, the height of the Statue of Liberty) if it is measurable by a certain value space, or as a gufo:IntrinsicMode (e.g. Bob's belief that the Eiffel Tower is in Paris) otherwise.

Corresponds to "Instrinsic Moment" in Guizzardi (2005). Different from Guizzardi (2005), here we consider that aspects can inhere in concrete individuals in general, and not only in endurants.

Super-classes gufo:Aspectc
Restrictions gufo:inheresInop exactly 1 gufo:ConcreteIndividualc
Sub-classes gufo:Qualityc
gufo:IntrinsicModec

Qualityc

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#Quality
Description

A gufo:IntrinsicAspect that is measurable by some value spaces. A quality may be used to compare individuals, on the basis of the value it takes in a certain quality space (for instance, a position within the RGB spectrum).

Examples include the weight of a person, the name of organization, the color of a car, and the duration of a concert.

Super-classes gufo:IntrinsicAspectc

IntrinsicModec

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#IntrinsicMode
Super-classes gufo:IntrinsicAspectc

ExtrinsicAspectc

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#ExtrinsicAspect
Description

A gufo:Aspect that depends on one or more concrete individuals.

Extrinsic (or "relational") aspects are reified relationships, e.g., John and Mary's marriage, Mary's employment contract at Nasa, or parts of those relationships, e.g., John's obligations towards Mary in the scope of the marriage, Mary's reciprocal claims, Mary's obligations towards John, John's reciprocal claims. Extrinsic aspects can also be reified one-sided relationships, e.g., John's admiration for Obama (which depends on Obama but does not characterize him).

Corresponds to "Extrinsic Moment" in Fonseca et al (2019). Encompasses "Externally Depedent Mode", "Qua Individual" and "Relator" in Guizzardi (2005).

Super-classes gufo:Aspectc
Sub-classes gufo:ExtrinsicModec
gufo:Relatorc

Relatorc

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#Relator
Description

A gufo:ExtrinsicAspect that connects (involves, mediates) two or more concrete individuals. Relators are reified relationships composed of reciprocal extrinsic modes.

Examples of relators include John and Mary's marriage (composed of John's obligations towards Mary in the scope of the marriage, Mary's reciprocal claims, Mary's obligations towards John, John's reciprocal claims), Mary's employment contract at Nasa, a covalent bond between two atoms.

Super-classes gufo:ExtrinsicAspectc
Restrictions gufo:mediatesop min 2 gufo:Endurantc
In domain of gufo:mediatesop

ExtrinsicModec

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#ExtrinsicMode
Super-classes gufo:ExtrinsicAspectc
Restrictions gufo:externallyDependsOnop some gufo:ConcreteIndividualc
gufo:inheresInop exactly 1 gufo:ConcreteIndividualc
In domain of gufo:externallyDependsOnop

Eventc

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#Event
Description

A gufo:ConcreteIndividual that 'occurs' or 'happens' in time. They may be instantaneous or long-running. Events are those "things that happen to or are performed by" (Casati and Varzi, 2015) endurants.

Examples include actions and processes, such as a business meeting, a communicative act, a soccer match, a goal kick, the clicking of a mouse button; as well as natural occurrences such as an earthquake, the fall of the meteor that caused the extinction of the dinosaurs.

Also termed "happening", "occurrence", "perdurant" or "occurrent" in the philosophical literature.

Casati, R. & Varzi, A. (2015). Events. In E.N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2015 ed.). 19 Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University. https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2015/entries/events/

Super-classes gufo:ConcreteIndividualc
Sub-classes gufo:Participationc
In domain of gufo:isEventProperPartOfop
gufo:broughtAboutop
In range of gufo:wasTerminatedInop
gufo:wasCreatedInop
gufo:isEventProperPartOfop
gufo:contributedToTriggerop
gufo:participatedInop
gufo:manifestedInop

Participationc

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#Participation
Description

A gufo:Event that depends on a single object.

Participations can be used to partition an event into portions, each of which depend exclusively on a single object. Consider a business meeting with multiple participants, including John and Mary. John's participation in the meeting encompasses all events that are part of the meeting and that depend solely on him. Likewise, Mary's participation encompasses all events that are part of the meeting and that depend solely on her. Similarly, in Brutus’ stabbing of Caesar, we may identify the participations of Brutus, of Caesar, and of the dagger.

Super-classes gufo:Eventc
Restrictions (inverse gufo:participatedIn) exactly 1 gufo:Objectc

Situationc

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#Situation
Description

A gufo:ConcreteIndividual that is a particular configuration of a part of reality which can be understood as a whole and in which entities stand in relations. A situation may be counterfactual or actual. An actual situation (or in other words, a "fact") "obtains" in a certain time instant or during a time interval.

Note that, in Guizzardi et al. (2013), situations were considered to obtain at a specific point in time. Here, instead, they obtain in a time interval when begin and end points differ.

The various subclasses of Situation in this implementation are used to capture "mutable" facts which obtain during some time and fail to obtain at other times. This includes the contingent instantiation of non-rigid types (e.g., as someone is a child at one point in time and a teenager later), the attribution of value to mutable qualities (such as a person's weight) and temporary participation in part-whole relations for replaceable parts (such as a car's tires). Other subclasses may be created to capture domain-specific notions such as "HazardousSituation", "PersonHasFever".

Super-classes gufo:ConcreteIndividualc
Sub-classes gufo:TemporaryConstitutionSituationc
gufo:TemporaryParthoodSituationc
gufo:TemporaryRelationshipSituationc
gufo:TemporaryInstantiationSituationc
gufo:QualityValueAttributionSituationc
In domain of gufo:contributedToTriggerop
gufo:isSituationProperPartOfop
In range of gufo:standsInop
gufo:broughtAboutop
gufo:isSituationProperPartOfop

TemporaryRelationshipSituationc

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#TemporaryRelationshipSituation
Description

A gufo:Situation in which a gufo:Endurant temporarily stands in a relation with another gufo:Endurant (or other endurants in the case of n-ary relationships).

Reification of a gufo:TemporaryRelationshipSituation allows qualification of the relationship with the period in time in which it applies.

Examples include: the situation in which Einstein works at the Swiss Patent Office in Bern; the situation in which Elon Musk studies at the University of Pennsylvania; the situation in which John Lennon is married to Yoko Ono; and the situation in which Facebook has a lower market value than Amazon.

For material relationships, prefer the use of gufo:Relator.

This is a reification of the relationship (in a solution that is similar to the qualified relation pattern http://patterns.dataincubator.org/book/qualified-relation.html).

Super-classes gufo:Situationc
Restrictions (inverse gufo:standsInQualifiedRelationship) exactly 1 gufo:Endurantc
gufo:concernsRelationshipTypeop exactly 1 gufo:RelationshipTypec
gufo:concernsRelatedEndurantop some gufo:Endurantc
In domain of gufo:concernsRelationshipTypeop
gufo:concernsRelatedEndurantop
In range of gufo:standsInQualifiedRelationshipop

QualityValueAttributionSituationc

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#QualityValueAttributionSituation
Description

A gufo:Situation in which a quality value is temporarily attributed to a gufo:Endurant.

A gufo:QualityValueAttributionSituation should be used only for mutable qualities, i.e. those whose value can vary in time.

Examples include: the situation in which the value of a bitcoin in Euros is 6.526,12, which lasted from 10/12/2019 to 11/12/2019; the situation in which the weight of Mike Tyson was 100 kg; and the situation in which the color of Einstein' hair was grey.

This is a reification of the quality value attribution (in a solution that is similar to the qualified relation pattern http://patterns.dataincubator.org/book/qualified-relation.html )

Super-classes gufo:Situationc
(gufo:concernsReifiedQualityValue exactly 1 gufo:QualityValuec) or (gufo:concernsQualityValue exactly 1 rdfs:Literal)
Restrictions gufo:concernsQualityTypeop exactly 1 gufo:EndurantTypec
(inverse gufo:standsInQualifiedAttribution) exactly 1 gufo:Endurantc
In domain of gufo:concernsReifiedQualityValueop
gufo:concernsQualityValuedp
gufo:concernsQualityTypeop
In range of gufo:standsInQualifiedAttributionop

TemporaryInstantiationSituationc

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#TemporaryInstantiationSituation
Description

A gufo:Situation in which a gufo:Endurant temporarily instantiates a gufo:NonRigidType.

A gufo:TemporaryInstantiationSituation can account for the time period in which a particular instantiation holds.

Examples include: the situation in which Obama instantiates the role of president, which began in 20/01/2009 and lasted until 20/01/2017; the situation in which Coatria instantiates the role of EU Member, which began in 01/07/2013 (and is still on-going); and the situation in which Steve Jobs instantiates the child phase, which began in 24/02/1955 and lasted until 24/02/1965.

This solution is inspired in the qualified relation pattern (http://patterns.dataincubator.org/book/qualified-relation.html).

Super-classes gufo:Situationc
Restrictions (inverse gufo:standsInQualifiedInstantiation) exactly 1 gufo:Endurantc
gufo:concernsNonRigidTypeop exactly 1 gufo:NonRigidTypec
In domain of gufo:concernsNonRigidTypeop
In range of gufo:standsInQualifiedInstantiationop

TemporaryParthoodSituationc

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#TemporaryParthoodSituation
Description

A gufo:Situation in which a gufo:Endurant is temporarily a part of another gufo:Endurant.

A gufo:TemporaryParthoodSituation should only be used for mutable parts. It may be qualified by the period in time in which the relation applies.

Examples include: the situation in which the United Kingdom is a member of the European Union; the situation in which Messi is a a member of the Barcelona FC squad; the situation in which an engine is part of a car; and the situation in which a transplanted heart is part of a person.

Note that, since every instance of gufo:Quantity or gufo:FixedCollection only has essential parts, the gufo:TemporaryParthoodSituation should not be used to represent these parthood relations.

This solution is inspired in the qualified relation pattern (http://patterns.dataincubator.org/book/qualified-relation.html).

Super-classes gufo:Situationc
Restrictions (inverse gufo:standsInQualifiedParthood) exactly 1 gufo:Endurantc
gufo:concernsTemporaryWholeop exactly 1 gufo:Endurantc
In domain of gufo:concernsTemporaryWholeop
In range of gufo:standsInQualifiedParthoodop

TemporaryConstitutionSituationc

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#TemporaryConstitutionSituation
Description

A gufo:Situation in which a gufo:Endurant temporarly constitutes another gufo:Endurant.

When constitution of an object may change in time, it may be qualified by the period in time in which the relation applies.

Examples include: the situation in which the Beatles is constituted by the group composed of {John,Paul,Ringo,George}; and the situation in which the statue of Venus de Milo was constituted by its original quantity of marble (including its arms).

This is a reification of constitution (in a solution that is similar to the qualified relation pattern http://patterns.dataincubator.org/book/qualified-relation.html)

Super-classes gufo:Situationc
Restrictions (inverse gufo:standsInQualifiedConstitution) exactly 1 gufo:Objectc
gufo:concernsConstitutedEndurantop exactly 1 gufo:Objectc
In domain of gufo:concernsConstitutedEndurantop
In range of gufo:standsInQualifiedConstitutionop

AbstractIndividualc

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#AbstractIndividual
Description

A gufo:Individual that does not exist in space-time in the same way as a gufo:ConcreteIndividual does. A gufo:AbstractIndividual has no spatiotemporal qualities in its own right. Hence, it does not make sense to ask how much space it now occupies (Gideon, 2018) and when it was created or destroyed.

Examples include the number ten, the null set, and the proposition that 'Obama was the president of the United States'.

Rosen, Gideon, "Abstract Objects", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2018 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2018/entries/abstract-objects/

Super-classes gufo:Individualc
Sub-classes gufo:QualityValuec
time:Instantc

QualityValuec

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#QualityValue
Description

A gufo:AbstractIndividual that can be associated with a gufo:Quality reflecting the perception or conception of the quality in a certain value space.

Instances of gufo:QualityValue include the rational number 2.5 when used to conceive of the acidity of a portion of wine (in a pH scale), the tuple <38.8897,-77.0089> when used to conceive of the location of a building (in a space formed by latitude and longitude), or the triplet <0,0,0> when used to conceive of the color of a physical object (in a trimensional space formed by red, green and blue color components).

Corresponds to "Quale" in Guizzardi (2005).

Use this class only for quality values (qualia) that are to be reified in the A-box and associated with a gufo:ConcreteIndividual through the object property gufo:hasReifiedQualityValue. Otherwise, use the gufo:hasQualityValue data property and a literal to determine the quality value.

Super-classes gufo:AbstractIndividualc
In domain of gufo:hasValueComponentdp
In range of gufo:hasReifiedQualityValueop
gufo:concernsReifiedQualityValueop

Typec

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#Type
Description

An entity that may be instantiated by (or predicated over) other entities. Types encompass what we often call "sorts", "kinds", "categories", etc.

Examples include the kind "Person", the event type "Earthquake", and the abstract individual type "NaturalNumber". Relations, such as "marriedTo" and "olderThan", are also considered as types.

Instances of gufo:Type are classes, and should specialize the taxonomy of individuals of gUFO. For example, "Person" is a gufo:Type (more specifically a gufo:Kind), specializing gufo:Object. The mechanism that allows for this is called punning in OWL 2.

Encompasses the notion of "Universal" in Guizzardi (2005).

Sub-classes gufo:ConcreteIndividualTypec
gufo:AbstractIndividualTypec
gufo:RelationshipTypec
In range of gufo:categorizesop

ConcreteIndividualTypec

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#ConcreteIndividualType
Description

A gufo:Type whose instances are concrete individuals.

Instances of gufo:ConcreteIndividualType are subclasses of gufo:ConcreteIndividual.

Examples include the gufo:Kind "Person", the gufo:Category "Physical Object", the gufo:EventType "Business Meeting".

Super-classes gufo:Typec
Sub-classes gufo:EventTypec
gufo:EndurantTypec
gufo:SituationTypec

EndurantTypec

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#EndurantType
Description

A gufo:Type whose instances are endurants.

Instances of gufo:EndurantType are subclasses of gufo:Endurant.

Examples include the object kind "Person", the phase "Child", the relator kind "Marriage".

See Guizzardi et al. (2018) for details concerning the taxonomy of endurant types included here.

Super-classes gufo:ConcreteIndividualTypec
Sub-classes gufo:NonRigidTypec
gufo:NonSortalc
gufo:RigidTypec
gufo:Sortalc
In domain of gufo:hasAssociatedQualityValueTypeop
In range of gufo:concernsQualityTypeop
gufo:isDerivedFromop

RigidTypec

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#RigidType
Description

A gufo:EndurantType which applies necessarily to its instances (see Guizzardi, 2005, chapter 4).

Examples include the types "Agent", "Person", "Animal", "PhysicalObject", "Car", and "Tree".

Super-classes gufo:EndurantTypec
Sub-classes gufo:SubKindc
gufo:Categoryc
gufo:Kindc

NonRigidTypec

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#NonRigidType
Description

A gufo:EndurantType that does not apply necessarily to at least one of its instances (see Guizzardi, 2005, chapter 4).

Examples include anti-rigid types, such as the role "Student" and the phase "Child", and semi-rigid types, such as the mixin "MusicalArtist" (which necessarily characterizes bands, but contingently characterizes people) and the mixin "FemaleAnimal" (which is necessarily characterizes female dogs, but contigently characterizes clownfish).

Super-classes gufo:EndurantTypec
Sub-classes gufo:SemiRigidTypec
gufo:AntiRigidTypec
In range of gufo:concernsNonRigidTypeop

AntiRigidTypec

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#AntiRigidType
Description

A gufo:NonRigidType that applies contingently to all its instances (see Guizzardi, 2005, chapter 4).

Examples include the gufo:Phase "Child", the gufo:PhaseMixin "InfantAnimal", the gufo:Role "Student", and the gufo:RoleMixin "Customer".

Super-classes gufo:NonRigidTypec
Sub-classes gufo:RoleMixinc
gufo:PhaseMixinc
gufo:Rolec
gufo:Phasec

SemiRigidTypec

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#SemiRigidType
Description

A gufo:NonRigidType that applies necessarily to some of its instances and contingently to some others (see Guizzardi, 2005, chapter 4).

Super-classes gufo:NonRigidTypec
Sub-classes gufo:Mixinc

Sortalc

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#Sortal
Description

A gufo:EndurantType which carries (or supplies) a principle of identity for its instances (see Guizzardi, 2005, chapter 4).

Super-classes gufo:EndurantTypec
Sub-classes gufo:Rolec
gufo:Kindc
gufo:Phasec
gufo:SubKindc

Kindc

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#Kind
Description

A gufo:EndurantType that is both sortal and rigid. It provides a uniform principle of identity for its instances. Every gufo:Endurant instantiates one and only one gufo:Kind.

Examples include kinds of ordinary objects of everyday experience, such as: "Person", "House", "Car"; kinds of relators, such as "Marriage", "RentalContract"; kinds of existentially-dependent aspects of objects, such as "Weight", "Belief", "Vulnerability".

Super-classes gufo:Sortalc
gufo:RigidTypec

SubKindc

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#SubKind
Description

A gufo:EndurantType that is both sortal and rigid. It specializes a gufo:Kind carrying the principle of identity supplied by that kind. Every gufo:SubKind should directly or indirectly specialize a gufo:Kind.

For example, the gufo:Kind "Lion" may be specialized into the "Lionness" and "Male Lion" subkinds, while the gufo:Kind "Computer" may be specialized into the "Laptop" and "Desktop" subkinds.

Super-classes gufo:RigidTypec
gufo:Sortalc

Rolec

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#Role
Description

A gufo:EndurantType that both sortal and anti-rigid. It is defined by relational instantiation conditions. Roles are relationally dependent types, capturing relational properties shared by instances of a given kind.

For example, "Student" may be considered a gufo:Role as a subclass of the gufo:Kind "Person", instantiated by all persons enrolled in a school. "

Super-classes gufo:Sortalc
gufo:AntiRigidTypec

Phasec

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#Phase
Description

A gufo:EndurantType that is both sortal and anti-rigid. It is defined by instrinsic but contingent instantiation conditions. Phases are relationally independent types that capturec instrinsic properties shared by instances of a given kind.

For example, "Child" may be considered a gufo:Phase as a subclass of the gufo:Kind "Person", instantiated by persons younger than 12. Another example is the type "IllPerson", which may be considered a gufo:Phase that is instantiated whenever an instance of "Disease" (a gufo:IntrinsicMode) inheres in a person.

Super-classes gufo:Sortalc
gufo:AntiRigidTypec

NonSortalc

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#NonSortal
Description

A gufo:EndurantType that applies to individuals of different kinds (see Guizzardi, 2005, chapter 4).

Non-sortals do not provide a uniform principle of identity for their instances; instead, they just classify things that share common properties but which obey different principles of identity.

Also termed "dispersive" types in the philosophical literature.

Super-classes gufo:EndurantTypec
Sub-classes gufo:RoleMixinc
gufo:PhaseMixinc
gufo:Categoryc
gufo:Mixinc

Categoryc

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#Category
Description

A gufo:EndurantType that is both non-sortal and rigid. It captures essential properties that apply to instances of different kinds.

For example, "PhysicalObject" may be considered a gufo:Category, encompassing objects such as cars, planets, trees. "Agent" may be a gufo:Category that classifies both people and organizations.

Super-classes gufo:NonSortalc
gufo:RigidTypec

Mixinc

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#Mixin
Description

A gufo:EndurantType that is both non-sortal and semi-rigid. As a semi-rigid type, it applies necessarily to some of its instances and contingently to some others. As a non-sortal, it captures properties shared by instances of different kinds.

For example, the type "FemaleAnimal" may be considered a gufo:Mixin as it applies necessarily to animals of certain species, e.g., lions and sharks, while it applies contingently to animals of other species such as clownfish and mushroom corals (which may change sex given certain conditions).

Super-classes gufo:SemiRigidTypec
gufo:NonSortalc

RoleMixinc

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#RoleMixin
Description

A gufo:EndurantType that is both non-sortal and anti-rigid. It is defined by relational instantiation conditions. Role mixins are relationally dependent types, capturing relational properties shared by instances of different kinds.

For example, "Customer" may be considered a gufo:RoleMixin as a superclass of the roles "CorporateCustomer" (specializing the gufo:Kind "BusinessOrganization") and "PersonalCustomer" (specializing the gufo:Kind "Person").

Super-classes gufo:NonSortalc
gufo:AntiRigidTypec

PhaseMixinc

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#PhaseMixin
Description

A gufo:EndurantType that is both non-sortal and anti-rigid. It is defined by instrinsic but contingent instantiation conditions. Phase mixins are relationally independent types that capture instrinsic properties shared by instances of different kinds.

For example, "LivingAnimal" may be considered a gufo:PhaseMixin as a superclass of the phases "LivingPerson" (specializing the gufo:Kind "Person") and "LivingDog" (specializing the gufo:Kind "Dog").

Super-classes gufo:AntiRigidTypec
gufo:NonSortalc

EventTypec

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#EventType
Description

A gufo:Type whose instances are events.

Instances of gufo:EventType are subclasses of gufo:Event.

Examples include "Business Meeting", "Birth", "Musical Performance".

Super-classes gufo:ConcreteIndividualTypec

SituationTypec

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#SituationType
Description

A gufo:Type whose instances are situations.

Instances of gufo:SituationType are subclasses of gufo:Situation.

Examples include "HazardousSituation", "PersonHasFever", "PersonIsStudent".

Super-classes gufo:ConcreteIndividualTypec

AbstractIndividualTypec

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#AbstractIndividualType
Description

A gufo:Type whose instances are abstract individuals.

Instances of gufo:AbstractIndividualType are subclasses of gufo:AbstractIndividual.

Examples include the types "NaturalNumber", "Set", "Proposition".

Super-classes gufo:Typec
In range of gufo:hasAssociatedQualityValueTypeop

RelationshipTypec

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#RelationshipType
Description

A gufo:Type whose instances are ordered pairs of related entities. Instances of gufo:RelationshipType are object properties in UFO-based ontologies.

The object properties "marriedWith" and "enrolledIn" are examples of material relationship types. The object properties "heavierThan", "olderThan" are examples of comparative relationship types.

The use of gufo:RelationshipType and its subclasses requires OWL 2 punning.

Corresponds to "Relation" in Guizzardi (2005) and Fonseca et al. (2019).

Super-classes gufo:Typec
Sub-classes gufo:MaterialRelationshipTypec
gufo:ComparativeRelationshipTypec
In range of gufo:concernsRelationshipTypeop

MaterialRelationshipTypec

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#MaterialRelationshipType
Description

A gufo:RelationshipType derived from extrinsic aspects of the related entities.

For example, "marriedWith", "employedBy", "enrolledIn", "admires".

For a gufo:MaterialRelationshipType it is recommended to identify the type of extrinsic aspect from which the material relationship type is derived (see gufo:isDerivedFrom). For example "marriedWith" can be derived from the "Marriage" relator type, "employedBy" can be derived from the "Employment" relator type.

Encompasses "Material Relation" in Guizzardi (2005) and corresponds to "Material Relation" in Fonseca et al. (2019).

Super-classes gufo:RelationshipTypec

ComparativeRelationshipTypec

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#ComparativeRelationshipType
Description

A gufo:RelationshipType derived from intrinsic aspects of the related entities.

For example, "heavierThan", "olderThan".

For a gufo:ComparativeRelationshipType it is recommended to identify the types of intrinsic aspects from which it is derived (see gufo:isDerivedFrom). For example "heavierThan" is derived from the "Weight" quality type.

Note that, in the case of relationships that may change in different circumstances or times, the use of a qualified relation pattern enables indicating the period of time in which the relationship holds. See gufo:TemporaryRelationshipSituation.

Corresponds to "comparative formal relation" in Guizzardi (2005) and "Comparative Relation" in Fonseca et al. (2019).

Super-classes gufo:RelationshipTypec

Object Properties

broughtAboutop

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#broughtAbout
Description

Identifies a gufo:Situation that is brought about by the gufo:Event.

Guizzardi et al. (2013) included a notion of "brings-about" that related events to a single ("maximal") situation, embodying all the effects of the event at the time it ends. This implementation of gufo:broughtAbout diverges from "brings-about" in that work because gufo:broughtAbout can be used to relate events to more than one gufo:Situation. Each gufo:Situation identified through gufo:broughtAbout should be understood as an (improper) part of the maximal situation.

Domain(s) gufo:Eventc
Range(s) gufo:Situationc

categorizesop

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#categorizes
Description

Identifies a gufo:Type whose instances may be classified by instances of the categorizing higher-order type.

For example, "ShipType" gufo:categorizes "Ship". Instances of "ShipType" such as "Supercarrier" and "Cargoship" should be declared subclasses of "Ship". OWL 2 punning should be used to capture the two facets of "Supercarrier" and "Cargoship" in this example: (i) as instances of "ShipType", and (ii) as subclasses of "Ship".

The categorized type is termed the "base type" in the "powertype pattern" see Carvalho et al (2017), the higher-order type is often called the "powertype".

gufo:categorizes is the general (unspecific) form of categorization. See gufo:partitions for a more specific form, in which instances of the categorized type are classified by exactly one instance of the higher-order type.

The domain is gufo:Type excluding gufo:AbstractIndividualType as well as gufo:ConcreteIndividualTypes because those types are first-order types (their instances are individuals). Only instances of gufo:Type representing higher-order types can categorize a base type.

For further details and formalization of "categorization", see Carvalho et al (2017) which combines UFO with MLT (a multi-level modeling theory).

V. A. Carvalho, J. P. A. Almeida, C. M. Fonseca, and G. Guizzardi, “Multi-level ontology-based conceptual modeling,” Data & Knowledge Engineering, vol. 109, p. 3–24, 2017. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.datak.2017.03.002

Domain(s) (gufo:Typec and not(gufo:AbstractIndividualTypec) and not(gufo:ConcreteIndividualTypec))
Range(s) gufo:Typec

concernsConstitutedEndurantop

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#concernsConstitutedEndurant
Description

Identifies the constituted gufo:Endurant in the gufo:TemporaryConstitutionSituation.

Domain(s) gufo:TemporaryConstitutionSituationc
Range(s) gufo:Endurantc

concernsNonRigidTypeop

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#concernsNonRigidType
Description

Identifies the gufo:NonRigidType that is instantiated by the endurant that stands in a gufo:TemporaryInstantiationSituation.

Domain(s) gufo:TemporaryInstantiationSituationc
Range(s) gufo:NonRigidTypec

concernsQualityTypeop

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#concernsQualityType
Description

Identifies the quality type (a gufo:EndurantType subclassing gufo:Quality) whose value is attributed in the gufo:QualityValueAttributionSituation.

Domain(s) gufo:QualityValueAttributionSituationc
Range(s) gufo:EndurantTypec

concernsReifiedQualityValueop

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#concernsReifiedQualityValue
Description

http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#concernsQualityValue

Domain(s) gufo:QualityValueAttributionSituationc
Range(s) gufo:QualityValuec

concernsRelatedEndurantop

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#concernsRelatedEndurant
Description

Identifies the related gufo:Endurant in the gufo:TemporaryRelationshipSituation.

Domain(s) gufo:TemporaryRelationshipSituationc
Range(s) gufo:Endurantc

concernsRelationshipTypeop

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#concernsRelationshipType
Description

Identifies the gufo:RelationshipType instantiated in the gufo:TemporaryRelationshipSituation.

Domain(s) gufo:TemporaryRelationshipSituationc
Range(s) gufo:RelationshipTypec

concernsTemporaryWholeop

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#concernsTemporaryWhole
Description

Identifies the whole (a gufo:Endurant) of which the endurant that stands in the gufo:TemporaryParthoodSituation is part.

Domain(s) gufo:TemporaryParthoodSituationc
Range(s) gufo:Endurantc

constitutesop

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#constitutes
Description

Identifies a gufo:ConcreteIndividual that is constituted (partially) by the constituent individual.

For example, the gufo:Collection of persons whose members are John, Paul, George, Ringo constituted the beatles, the gufo:Quantity of marble that constitutes the statue of Venus de Milo, and the gufo:Event of Paul raising his arm in a meeting that constitutes his voting (also a gufo:Event).

In case constitution changes in time, see gufo:standsInQualifiedConstitution.

Domain(s) gufo:ConcreteIndividualc
Range(s) gufo:ConcreteIndividualc

contributedToTriggerop

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#contributedToTrigger
Description

Identifies a gufo:Event that the gufo:Situation contributed to trigger.

Guizzardi et al. (2013) defined a notion of "triggers" to relate the situation satisfying all the sufficient and necessary conditions with the triggered event. This implementation differs from "triggers" as defined in that work because gufo:contributedToTrigger can be used to relate more than one gufo:Situation to a gufo:Event. Each gufo:Situation identified through gufo:contributedToTrigger should be understood as an (improper) part of the situation that triggered the event.

Domain(s) gufo:Situationc
Range(s) gufo:Eventc

externallyDependsOnop

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#externallyDependsOn
Description

Identifies a gufo:Endurant on which the gufo:ExtrinsicMode depends.

For example, John's duty to return the book he borrowed from Mary (a gufo:ExtrinsicMode) depends externally on Mary.

The identifed gufo:Endurant should be external to the bearer of the extrinsic mode (see Guizzardi, 2005, p. 239). In other words, the identified endurant should not be a part or an intrisic aspect of the bearer of the extrinsic mode.

Domain(s) gufo:ExtrinsicModec
Range(s) gufo:Endurantc

hasAssociatedQualityValueTypeop

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#hasAssociatedQualityValueType
Description

Identifies a quality value type to which the quality type is associated.

For example, a "Color" quality type may be associated with a "ColorValueInRGB" quality value type.

It relates a specialization of gufo:Quality (an instance of gufo:EndurantType) to a specialization of gufo:QualityValue (an instance of gufo:AbstractIndividualType).

To be used only when quality values are reified.

Domain(s) gufo:EndurantTypec
Range(s) gufo:AbstractIndividualTypec

hasBeginPointop

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#hasBeginPoint
Description

Identifies the begin point for a gufo:ConcreteIndividual, in the case in which time instants are reified.

In the case of endurants, this identifies the time point when the endurant comes into existence. In the case of events, this identifies the time point when the event starts to take place. In the case of situation, this identifies the time point when the situation begins to hold.

If time instants are not reified, use gufo:hasBeginPointInXSDDate or gufo:hasBeginPointInXSDDateTimeStamp.

Domain(s) gufo:ConcreteIndividualc
Range(s) time:Instantc

hasEndPointop

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#hasEndPoint
Description

Identifies the end point for a gufo:ConcreteIndividual, in the case in which time instants are reified.

In the case of endurants, this identifies the time point when the endurant ceases to exist. In the case of events, this identifies the time point when the event ends. In the case of situation, this identifies the time point when the situation ceases to hold.

Domain(s) gufo:ConcreteIndividualc
Range(s) time:Instantc

hasReifiedQualityValueop

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#hasReifiedQualityValue
Description

Identifies an instance of gufo:QualityValue to reflect the perception or conception of a quality in a certain value space.

Use this property only for quality values that are to be reified in the A-box and associated with a gufo:ConcreteIndividual. Otherwise, use the gufo:hasQualityValue data property and a literal to determine the quality value.

The full representation pattern for quality values involves first identifying a gufo:Quality that inheres in a concrete individual and then associating it with a reified quality value. For example, let us consider the color of Yves Klein's "Blue Monochrome" painting made in 1961 (MoMA's object with number 618.1967). In the full pattern, an instance of gufo:Quality that inheres in the physical object (the color of that painting) is associated with a gufo:QualityValue (say the triplet <0, 47, 167> for that painting) through gufo:hasReifiedQualityValue. The full pattern is recommended when different quality spaces are expected to be used for the same quality. For example, the color of that painting could also be associated with a quadruple <100, 72, 0, 35> representing the same color in a CMYK space.

When the full pattern is not required, gufo:hasReifiedQualityValue can also be used to directly associate a concrete individual (without identifying the quality) with a quality value.

Domain(s) gufo:ConcreteIndividualc
Range(s) gufo:QualityValuec

historicallyDependsOnop

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#historicallyDependsOn
Description

Identifies a gufo:ConcreteIndividual on which the concrete individual depends historically.

For example, a person is historically dependent on his/her ancestors.

When used between events, historical dependence encompasses causation (when the event is caused by the other), but also other cases where there is dependence but not causation (when the event brings about a situation that is either insufficient or more than sufficient to trigger the historically dependent event).

For example, Real Madrid's goal in the 60th minute of the 2016 FIFA Club World Cup Final is historically dependent on (and in this case caused by) a penalty kick by Cristiano Ronaldo. The penalty kick itself is historically dependent on (but not caused by) a penalty (the occurrence of the penalty is necessary but not sufficient to cause the penalty kick as authorization of the referee is required).

Historical dependence is transitive. Hence, in the example above, Real Madrid's goal is historically dependent on the penalty.

Domain(s) gufo:ConcreteIndividualc
Range(s) gufo:ConcreteIndividualc

inheresInop

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#inheresIn
Description

Identifies the gufo:ConcreteIndividual in which the gufo:Aspect inheres. Inherence is a sort of existential dependence. The identified concrete individual is the "bearer" of the aspect.

For example, the color of an object inheres in the object and the average speed of a flight inheres in the flight.

Domain(s) gufo:Aspectc
Range(s) gufo:ConcreteIndividualc

isAspectProperPartOfop

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#isAspectProperPartOf
Description

Identifies a gufo:Aspect of which the aspect is a proper part.

For example, John's obligations towards Mary in the scope of their marriage is an aspect proper part of their marriage (and same can be said of Mary's extrinsic aspects in the scope of their marriage.)

This property can be used to represent the composition of a relator from extrisinc aspects, but also to represent complex extrisinc aspects.

gufo:isAspectProperPartOf is transitive.

Super-properties gufo:isProperPartOfop
Domain(s) gufo:Aspectc
Range(s) gufo:Aspectc

isCollectionMemberOfop

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#isCollectionMemberOf
Description

Identifies a gufo:Collection of which the object is a member.

This is the relation between John and a group of persons, and between a cow and its herd.

gufo:isCollectionMemberOf is intransitive (Guizzardi, 2005, p. 185).

For membership in a gufo:VariableCollection, see gufo:standsInQualifiedParthood.

Super-properties gufo:isObjectProperPartOfop
Domain(s) gufo:Objectc
Range(s) gufo:Collectionc

isComponentOfop

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#isComponentOf
Description

Identifies a gufo:FunctionalComplex of which the object is a component.

For example, the habitation module is a component of the International Space Station, and so are each of the solar panels; Obama's brain is a component of his body, and so is his heart; the engine is a component of the HMS Queen Elizabeth (R08).

gufo:isComponentOf is not transitive in the general case. Particular sub-properties may be transitive (Guizzardi, 2005, p. 183).

When a component may change its relation to be whole, see gufo:standsInQualifiedParthood.

Super-properties gufo:isObjectProperPartOfop
Domain(s) gufo:Objectc
Range(s) gufo:FunctionalComplexc

isDerivedFromop

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#isDerivedFrom
Description

Identifies a gufo:EndurantType from which the material or comparative relation can be derived. The identified gufo:EndurantType should be a subclass of gufo:Aspect, more specifically a subclass of gufo:ExtrinsicAspect in the case of a gufo:MaterialRelationshipType, and a subclass of gufo:IntrinsicAspect in the case of a gufo:ComparativeRelationshipType.

For example, "marriedWith" can be derived from "Marriage", "heavierThan" can be derived from "Weight".

See Fonseca et al. (2019).

Domain(s) (gufo:ComparativeRelationshipTypec or gufo:MaterialRelationshipTypec)
Range(s) gufo:EndurantTypec

isEventProperPartOfop

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#isEventProperPartOf
Description

Identifies a gufo:Event of which the event is part.

For example, Cristiano Ronaldo's penalty kick is an event proper part of the 2016 FIFA Club World Cup Final, having ocurred in the 60th minute of that match. That match is itself an event proper part of the 2016 FIFA Club World Cup.

The match can be decomposed in different ways. For example, we can identify the participation of each player in the match (instances of gufo:Participation that are proper parts of the match) or decomposed the match using some temporal segmentation (each minute of the match, each of which is a proper part of the match).

gufo:isEventProperPartOf is transitive.

Super-properties gufo:isProperPartOfop
Domain(s) gufo:Eventc
Range(s) gufo:Eventc

isObjectProperPartOfop

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#isObjectProperPartOf
Description

Identifies a gufo:Object of which the object is a part.

This is a general parthood relation between objects. Use the various sub-properties provided in order to represent specific types of parthood, each of which has specialized semantics (and different formal properties in this implementation, in particular, transitivity (Guizzardi, 2005, section 5.6).

Super-properties gufo:isProperPartOfop
Domain(s) gufo:Objectc
Range(s) gufo:Objectc

isProperPartOfop

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#isProperPartOf
Description

Identifies a whole of which the entity is a proper part.

gufo:isProperPartOf is the most generic parthood relation in this implementation. Use the various sub-properties provided in order to represent specific types of parthood.

Proper parthood (and each of its sub-properties) is asymmetric and irreflexive. Nevertheless, these characteristics are not declared in this implementation since that would violate rules of OWL 2 DL that guarantee decidability of reasoning. Instead, we have focused only on declaring transitivity where applicable.

Note that gufo:isProperPartOf (as the most general notion of parthood) is transitive, although the various sub-properties may not be transitive.

Domain(s) owl:Thingc
Range(s) owl:Thingc

isSituationProperPartOfop

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#isSituationProperPartOf
Description

Identifies a gufo:Situation of which the situation is a part.

Examples include: the situation in which John has influenza is part of the situation in which John has influenza and he is tired; the situation in which John is friends with Mary is part of the situation in which he is friends with Mary and Alice; the situation in which John is married to Alice is part of the situation in which John is married to Alice, while she works at the Free University of Bozen-Bolzano.

Super-properties gufo:isProperPartOfop
Domain(s) gufo:Situationc
Range(s) gufo:Situationc

isSubCollectionOfop

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#isSubCollectionOf
Description

Identifies a gufo:Collection of which the collection is a sub-collection. All members of the sub-collection are members of the identified super-collection.

gufo:isSubCollectionOf is transitive (Guizzardi, 2005, p. 186).

For parthood involving one or more varied collections, see gufo:standsInQualifiedParthood.

Super-properties gufo:isObjectProperPartOfop
Domain(s) gufo:Collectionc
Range(s) gufo:Collectionc

isSubQuantityOfop

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#isSubQuantityOf
Description

Identifies a gufo:Quantity of which the quantity is a part.

For example, the quantity of water in a wine glass is a sub-quantity of the wine in that glass.

gufo:isSubQuantityOf is transitive (Guizzardi, 2005, p. 184).

Sub-quantities are always essential parts of their wholes. Thus, gufo:standsInQualifiedParthood is not applicable for sub-quantities.

Super-properties gufo:isObjectProperPartOfop
Domain(s) gufo:Quantityc
Range(s) gufo:Quantityc

manifestedInop

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#manifestedIn
Description

Identifies a gufo:Event in which the gufo:Aspect is manifested.

For example, the passing of an electrical current in a conductor is an event that encompasses the manifestation of an aspect inhering in a copper wire (the wire's electrical conductivity).

Domain(s) gufo:Aspectc
Range(s) gufo:Eventc

mediatesop

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#mediates
Description

Identifies the endurants mediated by a gufo:Relator.

For example, John and Mary's marriage mediates John and Mary.

Domain(s) gufo:Relatorc
Range(s) gufo:Endurantc

participatedInop

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#participatedIn
Description

Identifies a gufo:Event in which the gufo:Object participated.

Examples include the participation of Freddy Mercury in Queen's Live Aid Concert and the participation of an airplane in a flight.

Domain(s) gufo:Objectc
Range(s) gufo:Eventc

partitionsop

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#partitions
Description

Identifies a gufo:Type whose instances are classified by exactly one instance of the partitioning higher-order type.

For example, "AnimalSpecies" gufo:partitions "Animal". Instances of "AnimalSpecies" such as "Lion", "Hiena" must be disjoint subclasses of "Animal". OWL 2 punning should be used to capture the two facets of "Lion" and "Hiena" in this example: (i) as instances of "AnimalSpecies", and (ii) as subclasses of "Animal".

Note that the partitioned type (in the example "Animal") may or may not be declared to be a disjoint union of the explicitly enumerated subclasses (such as "Lion", "Hiena"). This is because other instances of the higher-order type ("AnimalSpecies") may exist that are not explicitly enumerated in the ontology.

The partitioned type is termed the "base type" in the "powertype pattern" see Carvalho et al (2017), the higher-order type is often called the "powertype".

For further details and formalization of "partitioning", see Carvalho et al (2017) which combines UFO with MLT (a multi-level modeling theory).

V. A. Carvalho, J. P. A. Almeida, C. M. Fonseca, and G. Guizzardi, “Multi-level ontology-based conceptual modeling,” Data & Knowledge Engineering, vol. 109, p. 3–24, 2017. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.datak.2017.03.002

Super-properties gufo:categorizesop
Domain(s) (gufo:Typec and not(gufo:AbstractIndividualTypec) and not(gufo:ConcreteIndividualTypec))

standsInop

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#standsIn
Description

Identifies a gufo:Situation in which the entity stands.

This implementation includes sub-properties of gufo:standsIn to identify situations concerning the attribution of (mutable) values to qualities, variable relationships, the instantiation of non-contingent types, temporary parthood and temporary constitution.

Domain(s) owl:Thingc
Range(s) gufo:Situationc

standsInQualifiedAttributionop

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#standsInQualifiedAttribution
Description

Identifies a gufo:QualityValueAttributionSituation in which the endurant stands. The identified gufo:QualityValueAttributionSituation is then used with the gufo:concernsQualityValue data property or the gufo:concernsReifiedQualityValue object property to indicate a quality value attributed to the gufo:Endurant standing in the situation. This forms a pattern to represent that quality values may differ in different situations.

Super-properties gufo:standsInop
Domain(s) gufo:Endurantc
Range(s) gufo:QualityValueAttributionSituationc

standsInQualifiedConstitutionop

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#standsInQualifiedConstitution
Description

Identifies a gufo:TemporaryConstitutionSituation in which an endurant stands temporarily (as a constituent). The identified gufo:TemporaryConstitutionSituation is further related with an endurant (the whole) through the gufo:concernsConstitutedEndurant object property. This forms a pattern to represent temporary constitution, in which the relationships between constituents and constituted endurant vary in different situations.

Consider, for example, a group of people (understood as a gufo:FixedCollection) constituting a band (understood as a gufo:FunctionalComplex). In this case, any change in the membership of the group (e.g., the replacement of one person) creates a different group of people. Therefore, the band's constitution can change in time, and the pattern using gufo:TemporaryConstitutionSituation is applicable.

Super-properties gufo:standsInop
Domain(s) gufo:Endurantc
Range(s) gufo:TemporaryConstitutionSituationc

standsInQualifiedInstantiationop

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#standsInQualifiedInstantiation
Description

Identifies a gufo:TemporaryInstantiationSituation in which the endurant stands. The identified gufo:TemporaryInstantiationSituation is further related with a gufo:NonRigidType through the gufo:concernsNonRigidType object property. This forms a pattern to represent the contigent instantiation of a non-rigid type by the endurant, in which case instantiation may vary in different situations.

Super-properties gufo:standsInop
Domain(s) gufo:Endurantc
Range(s) gufo:TemporaryInstantiationSituationc

standsInQualifiedParthoodop

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#standsInQualifiedParthood
Description

Identifies a gufo:TemporaryParthoodSituation in which the endurant stands (as a temporary part). The identified gufo:TemporaryParthoodSituation is further related with an endurant (the whole) through the gufo:concernsTemporaryWhole object property. This forms a pattern to represent temporary parthood, in which the relationships between parts and wholes vary in different situations. In particular, this pattern is useful in case parts may be separated from their wholes, attached to other wholes, replaced.

Super-properties gufo:standsInop
Domain(s) gufo:Endurantc
Range(s) gufo:TemporaryParthoodSituationc

standsInQualifiedRelationshipop

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#standsInQualifiedRelationship
Description

Identifies a gufo:TemporaryRelationshipSituation in which the endurant stands. The identified gufo:TemporaryRelationshipSituation is then used with the gufo:concernsRelatedEndurant and the gufo:concernsRelationshipType object properties to indicate the related element and the type of relationship that applies. This forms a pattern to represent that relationships that may change in different situations. For example, "heavierThan" may change when the objects involved gain or lose weight.

For material relations, prefer the use of gufo:Relator.

Super-properties gufo:standsInop
Domain(s) gufo:Endurantc
Range(s) gufo:TemporaryRelationshipSituationc

wasCreatedInop

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#wasCreatedIn
Description

Identifies the gufo:Event which brought the gufo:Endurant into existence.

For example, a musical piece is created in an act of composition (or in an event that is part of it), a piece of legislation is created in a complex legislative process.

Benevides et al. (2019) only discussed creation of objects; gufo:wasCreatedIn is extended to endurants in general. Further, in that work "createdBy" required the event to "bring about" a situation in which the created object is present. We relax this requirement here, such that the object may be created and terminated in the scope of the identified gufo:Event.

A. B. Benevides, J. R. Bourguet, G. Guizzardi, R. Penãloza, and J. P. A. Almeida, “Representing a reference foundational ontology of events in SROIQ,” Applied ontology, vol. 14, iss. 3, p. 293–334, 2019. http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/AO-190214

Domain(s) gufo:Endurantc
Range(s) gufo:Eventc

wasTerminatedInop

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#wasTerminatedIn
Description

Identifies the gufo:Event in which the gufo:Endurant was brought to an end.

For example, the Space Shuttle Challenger (OV-099) (a gufo:FunctionalComplex) was destroyed during the launch of its tenth flight (a gufo:Event).

Benevides et al. (2019) only discussed termination of objects; gufo:wasCreatedIn is extended to endurants in general. This means that a gufo:Relator (such as a marriage) can be declared terminated. Further, in that work "terminatedBy" required the event to be "triggered" by a situation in which the terminated object is present. We relax this requirement here, such that the object may be created and terminated in the scope of the identified gufo:Event.

A. B. Benevides, J. R. Bourguet, G. Guizzardi, R. Penãloza, and J. P. A. Almeida, “Representing a reference foundational ontology of events in SROIQ,” Applied ontology, vol. 14, iss. 3, p. 293–334, 2019. http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/AO-190214

Domain(s) gufo:Endurantc
Range(s) gufo:Eventc

Functional Properties

hasBeginPointInXSDDatefp

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#hasBeginPointInXSDDate
Description

Determines the begin point for a gufo:ConcreteIndividual, using a xsd:date literal.

In the case of endurants, gufo:asBeginPointInXSDDate determines the time point when the endurant comes into existence. In the case of events, this data property determines the time point when the event starts to take place. In the case of situation, it determines the time point when the situation begins to hold.

Use gufo:hasBeginPoint instead when temporal entities are reified.

Domain(s) gufo:ConcreteIndividualc
Range(s) xsd:datec

hasBeginPointInXSDDateTimeStampfp

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#hasBeginPointInXSDDateTimeStamp
Description

Determines the begin point for a gufo:ConcreteIndividual, using a xsd:dateTimeStamp literal.

In the case of endurants, gufo:hasBeginPointInXSDDateTimeStamp determines the time point when the endurant comes into existence. In the case of events, this data property determines the time point when the event starts to take place. In the case of situation, it determines the time point when the situation begins to hold.

Use gufo:hasBeginPoint instead when temporal entities are reified.

Domain(s) gufo:ConcreteIndividualc
Range(s) xsd:dateTimeStampc

hasEndPointInXSDDatefp

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#hasEndPointInXSDDate
Description

Determines the end point for a gufo:ConcreteIndividual using a xsd:date literal.

In the case of endurants, gufo:hasEndPointInXSDDate determines the time point when the endurant ceases to exist. In the case of events, this data property determines the time point when the event ends. In the case of situation, it determines the time point when the situation ceases to hold.

Use gufo:hasEndPoint instead when temporal entities are reified.

Domain(s) gufo:ConcreteIndividualc
Range(s) xsd:datec

hasEndPointInXSDDateTimeStampfp

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#hasEndPointInXSDDateTimeStamp
Description

Determines the end point for a gufo:ConcreteIndividual using a xsd:dateTimeStamp literal.

In the case of endurants, gufo:hasEndPointInXSDDateTimeStamp determines the time point when the endurant ceases to exist. In the case of events, this data property determines the time point when the event ends. In the case of situation, it determines the time point when the situation ceases to hold.

Use gufo:hasEndPoint instead when temporal entities are reified.

Domain(s) gufo:ConcreteIndividualc
Range(s) xsd:dateTimeStampc

Datatype Properties

concernsQualityValuedp

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#concernsQualityValue
Description

Determines a quality value associated with the gufo:ConcreteIndividual that stands in the gufo:QualityValueAttributionSituation.

Use gufo:concernsReifiedQualityValue instead when quality values are refied.

It is recommended that subproperties of gufo:concernsQualityValue are created, possibly identifying the datatype to be used. For example, "concernsTemperatureValue" could be defined as a sub-property of gufo:concernsQualityValue with range xsd:double.

Domain(s) gufo:QualityValueAttributionSituationc

hasQualityValuedp

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#hasQualityValue
Description

Determines a quality value associated with the concrete individual.

Use gufo:hasReifiedQualityValue instead when quality values are reified.

It is recommended that subproperties of gufo:hasQualityValue are created, possibly identifying the datatype to be used. For example, "hasTemperatureValue" could be defined as a sub-property of gufo:hasQualityValue whose domain is "Temperature" (specializing gufo:Quality) and whose range is xsd:double.

Domain(s) gufo:ConcreteIndividualc

hasValueComponentdp

IRI http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#hasValueComponent
Description

This property is used for quality values that are defined in terms of a multidimensional quality structure (such as color conceived in terms of hue, saturation and brightness). Each value component of a quality value (a particular value for hue, a particular value for saturation, a particular value for brightness) is determined with this property.

It is recommended that subproperties of gufo:hasValueComponent are created to indicate values for particular dimensions, possibly identifying the datatype to be used. For example "hasHueComponent", "hasSaturationComponent" and "hasBrightnessComponent" could be used as data properties specializing gufo:hasValueComponent with the xsd:double datatype.

Domain(s) gufo:QualityValuec

Namespaces

default (:)
http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#
dc
http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/
dct
http://purl.org/dc/terms/
foaf
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/
gufo
http://purl.org/nemo/gufo#
owl
http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#
rdf
http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#
rdfs
http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#
sdo
http://schema.org/
time
http://www.w3.org/2006/time#
vann
http://purl.org/vocab/vann/
xml
http://www.w3.org/XML/1998/namespace
xsd
http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#